# 現代物理における物質と宇宙の理解

19 世期末に数々の矛盾に直面した物理学は，20世紀に入ると物質，空間， 宇宙などに対する考え方を根本より変えることによって問題を解決し， 大きな発展を遂げました．特に量子力学と相対性理論は革命的な概念を 導入しました．

• 基礎物理：
原子，分子に基づいた現代の物質像．エネルギー， 温度， 波の干渉，といった基礎的な物理概念．
• 量子力学の世界：
原子はなぜ特定の大きさを持つのか？ なぜ安定なのか？ 不確定性原理とは何だろうか？ 粒子と波の二重性とは？
• 宇宙物理：
宇宙の "始まり" 星はなぜ光るのか？ 星の一生とは？ ブラックホールとはどのようなものか？ 我々の宇宙には存在するのか？
• 特殊相対性理論，一般相対性理論：
「相対性」とは？ 宇宙旅行で年をとらないとは本当か？ なぜ相 対性を一般的に考えると重力の理論なのか？

## Contents

### Lectures

1. general physics: microscopic view of temperature. (equipartition). kinetic theory of gases and phase transitions. microscopic reversibility and macroscopic irreversibility. concept of entropy.
2. waves: what are waves? interference and diffraction. their meanings in everyday life. doppler effect.
3. quantum mechanics 1: photo electric effect. meaning of a quantum.
4. quantum mechanics 2: uncertainty principle. structure of the atom and its experimental basis. stability of the atom and quantum mechanics.
5. quantum mechanics 3: atomic spectra and the wave nature of particles. atomic spectra and light. tunnel effect.
6. special relativity 1: what is relativity? time dilation. Lorentz contraction. Lorentz transformation. Rough estimate of SR effects.
7. special relativity 2: addition of velocities. meaning of 'spacetime' in SR. causality. introduction to general theory of relativity.
8. general relativity 1: principle of equivalence. bending of light. gravitational red shift. black holes.

### Talks related to Experiments

1. Monte Carlo method. Numerical integration. Concept of errors, statistical and systematic. Statistical errors of averages.
2. Mechanism of surfectants and Ben Franklin's measurement. Soaps - why thin films, how they clean grease.
3. Newton's law and mechanics. Dimensional analysis.
4. Refraction and the speed of light, or waves in general. Fermat's principle and more general understanding of wave propagation.
5. What is color? Fluorescence. Why is the sky blue? Why are the clouds white?
6. Conservation of energy, heat and heat capacity.
7. Elasticity. Young's constant and Poisson ratio. Description of uniform materials.
8. Photo electric effect and light quantum hypothesis. Its bearing on the experiment.
9. Interference and diffraction: What are they? What is a laser light?
10. e/m experiment. meaning of e/m and relativity.
11. fields, waves and particles. what are quarks?
To come:
1. Interatomic forces - their origin and their prevalence.
2. Newton and Hooke.
3. Quarks.