[Physics FAQ] - [Copyright]

updated 15-OCT-1997 by PEG
updated 9-OCT-1996 by PEG
updated 12-OCT-1994 by SIC
original by Scott I. Chase

The Nobel Prize for Physics (1901-1997)

The following is a complete listing of Nobel Prize awards, from the first award in 1901. Prizes were not awarded in every year. The date in brackets is the approximate date of the work. The description following the names is an abbreviation of the official citation.

The Physics prize is announced near the beginning of October each year. One of the quickest ways to get the announcement is to watch the Nobel Foundation web site at http://www.nobel.se/.

1901  [1895]  Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen         X-rays
1902  [1896]  Hendrik Antoon Lorentz          Magnetism in radiation phenomena
              Pieter Zeeman
1903  [1896]  Antoine Henri Bequerel          Spontaneous radioactivity
      [1898]  Pierre Curie
              Marie Sklodowska-Curie 
1904  [1894]  Lord Rayleigh                   Density of gases and 
              (a.k.a. John William Strutt)     discovery of argon
1905  [1899]  Pilipp Eduard Anton von Lenard  Cathode rays
1906  [1897]  Joseph John Thomson             Conduction of electricity by gases
1907          Albert Abraham Michelson        Precision meteorological investigations
1908          Gabriel Lippman                 Reproducing colors photographically
                                         based on the phenomenon of interference
1909  [1901]  Guglielmo Marconi               Wireless telegraphy
              Carl Ferdinand Braun
1910  [1873]  Johannes Diderik van der Waals  Equation of state of fluids
1911  [1896]  Wilhelm Wien                    Laws of radiation of heat
1912  [1909]  Nils Gustaf Dalen               Automatic gas flow regulators 
1913  [1911]  Heike Kamerlingh Onnes          Matter at low temperature
1914  [1912]  Max von Laue                    Crystal diffraction of X-rays
1915  [1913]  William Henry Bragg             X-ray analysis of crystal structure
              William Lawrence Bragg
1916       no award
1917  [1911]  Charles Glover Barkla           Characteristic X-ray spectra of elements
1918  [1900]  Max Planck                      Energy quanta
1919  [1913]  Johannes Stark                  Splitting of spectral lines in E fields
1920          Charles-Edouard Guillaume       Anomalies in nickel steel alloys
1921  [1905]  Albert Einstein                 Photoelectric Effect
1922  [1913]  Niels Bohr                      Structure of atoms
1923  [1909]  Robert Andrew Millikan          Elementary charge of electricity
1924          Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn       X-ray spectroscopy
1925  [1914]  James Franck                    Impact of an electron upon an atom
              Gustav Hertz
1926          Jean Baptiste Perrin            Sedimentation equilibrium
1927  [1924]  Arthur Holly Compton            Compton effect
      [1912]  Charles Thomson Rees Wilson     Invention of the Cloud chamber
1928  [1903]  Owen Willans Richardson         Thermionic phenomena, Richardson's Law
1929  [1923]  Prince Louis-Victor de Broglie  Wave nature of electrons
1930  [1928]  Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Scattering of light, Raman effect
1931       no award
1932  [1925]  Werner Heisenberg               Quantum Mechanics 
1933  [1926]  Erwin Schrodinger               Atomic theory
      [1928]  Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
1934       no award
1935  [1932]  James Chadwick                  The neutron
1936  [1911]  Victor Franz Hess               Cosmic rays
      [1932]  Carl D. Anderson                The positron
1937  [1925]  Clinton Joseph Davisson         Crystal diffraction of electrons
              George Paget Thomson
1938  [1935]  Enrico Fermi                    New radioactive elements 
1939  [1929]  Ernest Orlando Lawrence         Invention of the Cyclotron
1940       no award
1941       no award
1942       no award
1943  [1933]  Otto Stern                      Proton magnetic moment
1944  [1935]  Isador Isaac Rabi               Magnetic resonance in atomic nuclei
1945  [1924]  Wolfgang Pauli                  The Exclusion principle
1946  [1925]  Percy Williams Bridgman         Production of extremely high pressures
1947  [1924]  Sir Edward Victor Appleton      Physics of the upper atmosphere
1948  [1932]  Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett Cosmic ray showers in cloud chambers
1949  [1935]  Hideki Yukawa                   Prediction of Mesons 
1950  [1947]  Cecil Frank Powell              Photographic emulsion for meson studies
1951  [1932]  Sir John Douglas Cockroft       Artificial acceleration of atomic 
              Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton      particles and transmutation of nuclei
1952  [1946]  Felix Bloch                     Nuclear magnetic precision methods 
              Edward Mills Purcell
1953  [1935]  Frits Zernike                   Phase-contrast microscope
1954  [1926]  Max Born                        Fundamental research in QM
      [1925]  Walther Bothe                   Coincidence counters
1955  [1947]  Willis Eugene Lamb              Hydrogen fine structure
      [1947]  Polykarp Kusch                  Electron magnetic moment
1956  [1948]  William Shockley                Transistors
              John Bardeen
              Walter Houser Brattain
1957  [1956]  Chen Ning Yang                  Parity violation 
              Tsung Dao Lee
1958  [1934]  Pavel Aleksejevic Cerenkov      Interpretation of the Cerenkov effect
      [1937]  Il'ja Mickajlovic Frank
              Igor' Evgen'evic Tamm
1959  [1955]  Emilio Gino Segre               The Antiproton
              Owen Chamberlain    
1960  [1952]  Donald Arthur Glaser            The Bubble Chamber
1961  [1953]  Robert Hofstadter               Electron scattering on nucleons
              Rudolf Ludwig Mossbauer         Resonant absorption of photons
1962  [1941]  Lev Davidovic Landau            Theory of liquid helium
1963  [1931]  Eugene P. Wigner                Fundamental symmetry principles
      [1949]  Maria Goeppert Mayer            Nuclear shell structure
              J. Hans D. Jensen 
1964  [1958]  Charles H. Townes               Maser-Laser principle
              Nikolai G. Basov
              Alexander M. Prochorov
1965  [1948]  Sin-Itiro Tomonaga              Quantum electrodynamics
              Julian Schwinger
              Richard P. Feynman
1966  [1950]  Alfred Kastler                  Study of Hertzian resonance in atoms
1967  [1938]  Hans Albrecht Bethe             Energy production in stars 
1968  [1955]  Luis W. Alvarez                 Discovery of many particle resonances
1969  [1964]  Murray Gell-Mann                Quark model for particle classification
1970  [1942]  Hannes Alfven                   Magneto-hydrodynamics in plasma physics
      [1932]  Louis Neel                      Antiferromagnetism and ferromagnetism
1971  [1947]  Dennis Gabor                    Principles of holography
1972  [1957]  John Bardeen                    Theory of superconductivity
              Leon N. Cooper
              J. Robert Schrieffer
1973  [1960]  Leo Esaki                       Tunneling in superconductors
              Ivar Giaever 
      [1962]  Brian D. Josephson              Super-current through tunnel barriers
1974  [1974]  Antony Hewish                   Discovery of pulsars
      [1958]  Sir Martin Ryle                 Pioneering radioastronomy work
1975  [1950]  Aage Bohr                       Structure of the atomic nucleus
              Ben Mottelson
              James Rainwater
1976  [1974]  Burton Richter                  Discovery of the J/Psi particle
              Samual Chao Chung Ting
1977  [1958]  Philip Warren Anderson          Electronic structure of magnetic and 
      [1967]  Nevill Francis Mott             disordered solids
              John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
1978  [1932]  Pyotr Kapitsa                   Liquefaction of helium
      [1965]  Arno A. Penzias                 Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
              Robert W. Wilson
1979  [1961]  Sheldon Glashow                 Electroweak Theory, especially
      [1967]  Steven Weinberg                  weak neutral currents
      [1968]  Abdus Salam                     
1980  [1964]  James Cronin                    Discovery of CP violation in the 
              Val Fitch                        asymmetric decay of neutral K-mesons
1981          Kai M. Seigbahn                 High resolution electron spectroscopy
      [1962]  Nicolaas Bloembergen            Laser spectroscopy
              Arthur L. Schawlow
1982  [1972]  Kenneth G. Wilson               Critical phenomena in phase transitions 
1983  [1935]  Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar      Evolution of stars
      [1957]  William A. Fowler
1984  [1983]  Carlo Rubbia                    Discovery of W,Z
      [1970]  Simon van der Meer              Stochastic cooling for colliders
1985  [1977]  Klaus von Klitzing              Discovery of quantum Hall effect
1986  [1981]  Gerd Binnig                     Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
              Heinrich Rohrer
      [1932]  Ernst August Friedrich Ruska    Electron microscopy
1987  [1986]  Georg Bednorz                   High-temperature superconductivity
              Alex K. Muller 
1988  [1962]  Leon Max Lederman               Discovery of the muon neutrino leading
              Melvin Schwartz                  to classification of particles in 
              Jack Steinberger                 families
1989          Hans Georg Dehmelt              Penning Trap for charged particles
              Wolfgang Paul                   Paul Trap for charged particles
              Norman F. Ramsey                Control of atomic transitions by the
                                               separated oscillatory fields method
1990  [1972]  Jerome Isaac Friedman           Deep inelastic scattering experiments
              Henry Way Kendall                leading to the discovery of quarks
              Richard Edward Taylor
1991          Pierre-Gilles de Gennes         Order-disorder transitions in liquid 
                                               crystals and polymers
1992          Georges Charpak                 Multiwire Proportional Chamber
1993  [1974]  Russell A. Hulse                Discovery of the first binary pulsar
              Joseph H. Taylor                 and subsequent tests of GR
1994  [1960]  Bertram N. Brockhouse           Neutron scattering experiments 
      [1946]  Clifford G. Shull 
1995  [1975]  Martin L. Perl                  Discovery of the tau lepton
      [1953]  Frederick Reines                Detection of the neutrino 
1996          David M. Lee                    Superfluidity in Helium-3
              Douglas D. Osheroff
              Robert C. Richardson
1997  [1985]  Steven Chu                      Development of methods to cool 
              Claude Cohen-Tannoudji          and trap atoms with laser light
              William D. Phillips